There have been several development projects done by the Indonesian government to promote Batik produc- tion in many provinces throughout Indonesia since early 1950s; and as the result, a lot of new production areas emerged. One of the projects was run in 1981, by the Directorate General of Small-Scale Industries, Ministry of Industry and the Office of Minister for Development to provide training to village women in several provinces of how to produce Batik as an alternative income to the villagers’ families. It has been long known that Java is the oldest production area, however, the impacts resulted from the project is the transfer of Batik skills to people living outside Java such as Papua, Kalimantan and Sulawesi which later become new area of Batik production. People living in Sumatra Barat, Jambi, Palembang, Lampung and Bengkulu who had known Batik art long before were also encouraged by the program to elevate their local traditional Batik.
Another Government project was carried out by Bank Indonesia, namely SIPUK or Information System for Small Scale Enterprise Development. One of SIPUK programs is the Research of Batik in Central Java which aimed at de- veloping the small scale Batik industries in the area. The information was distributed to the society through media and to the local government in order to get clear picture of the condition of the Batik industry needed for develop- ing a regional plan on Batik manufacturing. The development of SIPUK project is closely related to the policy and strategy of Bank of Indonesia in promoting the development of small enterprises, which has been carried out since 1978 until the implementation of Act No. 23/999, which specifically intended for small enterprises development through the provision of useful information.
Production Areas of Surakarta and Yogyakarta
Surakarta is an important production center of Batik beside Yogyakarta and Pe- kalongan. The production of Batik has become part of the traditional economy of the population in the area. The typical traditional patterns from Solo are as follows:
- Sido Milo (symbol of happiness and wealthy)
- Sido Dadi (symbol of prosperity, happiness and wealthy)
- Satrio Wibowo (symbol of a man/woman with dignity)
- Tikel Asmorodono (symbol of love given by others)
Kampoeng Batik Laweyan (Laweyan Batik Village) is a well known place of Batik manufacturers located in a traditional village full of Old Dutch architectural buildings with narrow streets, typical of Indonesian village. Besides having showrooms and shops, some of the manufacturers organize short batik courses for tourists.
Traditional markets play very important role for Batik transaction, especially for small and medium scale enterprises; for instance in Solo there is Pasar Klewer or Klew- er Market located off the west gate of Karaton’s North Square, this old market sells all kinds of fabrics, predominantly batik. Other traditional fabrics are lurik (Javanese hand-woven striped cotton cloth) and tenun ikat (tyed dyed). There are hundreds of Batik shops jammed along narrow passageways.
Special Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta is known as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture and Batik is their major production. Other important products of the city are handicrafts includ- ing Batik garment and household items, wooden product, leather, ceramics and pot- tery and silver.
The typical Yogyakarta Batik patterns and motifs are mostly Parang, Ceplok, Sido- Mukti, Truntum and Kawung. The Yogyakarta Batik color combination is similar with Solo, dominated by rich brown color, indigo (blue), black, white and cream. The fa- mous Batik Production areas in Yogyakarta, among others are Prawirotaman and Ku- lonprogo.
Bringhardjo traditional market is one of the important places for Batik traders and it becomes the meeting point for the small and medium scale enterprises to do busi- ness. Beside wholesale, there are many Batik counters offering retail prices to local and foreign tourists. This market has been functioning as one of the tourist’s attractions in Yogyakarta, the best place because of its complete collections; ranging from batik cloth to batik clothes made of both cotton and silk materials, with the prices ranging from tens thousands to a million. There are some principle, big manufacturers of Batik such as Winotosastro, Mirota Batik, Ardiyanto Batik and some others, that have been exporting to foreign countries.