This thesis deals with the design and developement of new tool for making batik. The process of making batik are of two method, batik canting (hand drawn batik) and batik “chop” (batik stamp). Conventionally, in batik canting process, the molten wax are drawn onto fabric using a wooden, copper sprout tool which known as the “canting” or “tjanting”. Since Malaysia government are serious in promoting the industry of batik internationally, and there is need to strengthen the Small and Medium Industry (SME) of Malaysia, this project then is carried on. The main purpose of the project are to design and develop a new semi automatic canting tool. The term semi automatic is subjected to the combination of several processes in batik making process into a single tool. The idea is to have tool that enable the electrical heating and the drawing process done simultaneously. This will eliminate the process of conventional heating process using stove and the process of transferring the molten wax into the canting tool before the drawing process started. This study started by collecting all the information related to batik making process such as the canting tool, the steps on producing batik, and also the raw material related to batik making process. The information are collected through visit and also interview session. After all informations are sufficient enough, then the initial idea and design are developed. Throughout the project, SolidWork 2012 are used to do design and also simulation analysis on the tool. Prototyping of the tool are for functionality testing which evaluate the ergonomic design and drawing ability of the tool. The results are then analyze to see if the tool are well function or not. The findings are then summarized with some recommendations suggested to improve the tool.
This chapter wills discuss the background and rationale for the study. This chapter emphasis on research background which is significantly related to the problem statement, research scope, research objective, and also significant of research.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF PROJECT
The exact origin of batik making process is lost to history. Recent research show that early proof of batik have been found from Far East up through Central Asia, Middle East, and also Africa. The origin of batik may be uncertain, but if we look at the word “Batik” is of Indonesian word which in Indonesia, the process of making batik was developed into one of the great art form. (The Art of Batik)
As in Malaysia, the origin of Batik also is not easy to trace. However, the states of Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang, are places where Batik are produce most in Malaysia. Back in the 18th century, it is believe that batik in Malaysia have Chinese, Indian, and also Javanese influence, and the Sultans were mainly responsible in expanding and promoting the Batik industry in this two states. (World Batik Council).
Traditional way of Batik making mainly can be divided into two types: Batik canting and batik “chop”. These two types of making batik are of traditional, ancient tools and still be used widely in the modern times. The batik canting is labour intensive which requires high skills and creativity of Batik artisan to produce high quality and inspiring pattern of Batik. The process can take up to weeks depending on the complexity of pattern to be drawn, which is why canting batik is highly valued. (Fine Batik). Batik “chop” or block printed batik is done by metal block made by several strips of metal which are welded together to produce particular pattern. (World Batik Council).
In Malaysia, batik industries today are growing rapidly and most of the industries are of East Peninsula of Malaysia, which is Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang. Malaysia government is doing very good effort in order to keep the industries flourish. The Handicraft Board is taking steps by organizing Workshops and Expos for the batik artisan to promote and also improve the quality of batik produced. (Malaysia: Thriving Batik Industry, 2007)
In conjunction with “Piala Seri Endon”, which is named after the late Tun Endon Mahmood, wife of former Malaysia Prime Minister Tun Ahmad Badawi, batik are known internationally. This event aim to discover and provide for support, recognition, and encouragement of Malaysia’s batik – making talent.
Malaysia government now promoting Malaysia batik as national dress to every level of general population in line with the “1 Malaysia” on – going program. Government even makes it compulsory for government officials to wear batik in order to show support to Malaysia batik industries. (Surat Pekeliling Perkhidmatan Bil. 1, 2008)
As Malaysia government is serious in promoting the batik industries, many research have been done from process optimization, material improvement, to computer simulation and development of new tools in order to modernize and improve the batik industries.
1.3 RESEARCH PROLBLEM
Canting or “tjanting” is a traditional tools for making Batik canting, or hand – painted batik. It is a tool of small, copper spouted cup used to draw hot wax across the fabric. This traditional way of making batik had been used long time ago, and even nowadays in modern times, this traditional, conventional canting method still being applied in batik industry.
Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs) are increasingly a force for national economic growth and Malaysian Government have been aggressively promoting for the development of these Small and Medium Enterprise. Even SME business incubation centres, and SME Bank has been established to meet needs of the SMEs.
Since Batik industries are of Small and Medium Enterprise, and government are to introduce batik internationally, there is need for improving the tools for making batik. Design and development of new semi – auto canting tools seems to be very relevant to the industry of Malaysia Batik.
Traditionally, the process of heating or melting the material was done using the stove and then the melting wax transferred into the canting tool before drawing onto the fabric. One problem is that the temperature of the stove could not be controlled precisely increasing the possibility of the melting wax to be overheated.
Another thing is that sometime the melting wax can stuck in the vessel of the canting tool causing an influent flow of the wax during drawing process. This is due to reduction in temperature at the canting tool which result the wax to be
Considering the development of semi – auto electrical canting, a lot of consideration also need to be taken into account. The overall weight, the mechanism, and the design concept should never trouble the batik artisan.