Creative industries are the main pillars in developing creative economic sector that provides a positive impact on national income. The role of creative industries in economy of Indonesia quite significant, with the contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) on average 6.3% in 2002-2006 (equal to 152.5 trillion rupiah) and can absorb the 5,4 million of workforce. From the export side, the average total exports of creative economy during the years 2002-2006 amounted to 10.6% . Creative industries contributed in some areas of life, not just viewed from an economic, but also can provide positive impact to other aspects such as improving the image and national identity, innovation and creativity of children of the nation, resource utilization infinite (idea, talents, and creativity), and social impacts.
One type of creative industries is the batik industry. Like the other industries that are included in the creative industries, batik industry faces a number of problems that related to the quality of human resources, business climate, reward/appreciation that given to the creative person and creative work produced, use of information of technology and communications, and funding support from the banking institutions. Among these problems, the most dominant problem is quality of human resources or human resource skill. Human resources are the most important factor in the creative industries because the creative industries derived from the utilization of creativity, skill and individual talent.
Batik Industry as a Creative Industry
Creative industries are industry derived from the underutilization of creativity, skills and individual talents of individual to make create wealth and generate employment by producing and exploiting individual creativity. In the creative industries, creativity has a central role as the primary resource. Creative industries require more creative resources that derived from the idea or inspiration of human thought than physical resources. However, the physical resources remain necessary, especially on its role as a creative medium.
Indonesia arranges creative industries into 14 industrial groups, i.e.: architecture, design, fashion, film, video and photography, crafts, computer service and software, music, market and art goods, publishing and printing, advertising, interactive games, research & development, performing arts, television and radio. Craft is a creative that related in creation, production and product distribution that created and produced by a crafts person which begins with designing to product settlement process, includes some of goods that made of: gemstone, natural fiber, leather, rattan, bamboo, wood, metal (gold, silver, copper, bronze, iron) glass, porcelain, fabric, marble, clay, and chalk. Batik industry is classified to subsector handicraft in creative industry. The same classification is also expressed by KBLI (Klasifikasi Baku Lapangan Usaha Indonesia).
Creativity is the ability to generate innovative ideas and manifest them from thought into reality. The process involves original thinking and then producing. The process of creation was historically reserved for deities creating “from nothing” in creationist and other creation myths. Over time, the term creativity came to include human innovation, especially in art and science and led to the emergence of the creative class.
Creativity is construed differently by various of theorists. Sternberg and Lubart in 1999 present that “Creativity is the ability to produce work that is both novel (i.e. original, unexpected) and appropriate (i.e. useful concerning tasks constrains)”. Runco in 2007 present several authors that define creativity as involving the creation of something new and useful (Bailin in 1988, Bean in 1992, Solomon, Powell and Gardner in 1999, Mumford in 2003, Andreasen in 2005 and Flaherty in 2005). Their point of view considers creative functioning as the manifestation of fluctuations in unstable, self-organizing local systems that reorganize into patterns of higher order thinking and coherence.Some theories and definition about creativity. Guilford in 1950 found that creativity refers to the abilities that are characteristics of creative people. Hulbeck in 1945 define “Creative action is an imposing of one’s own whole personality on the environment in an unique and characteristic way”.
Creative refers to novel products of value, the person who produces the work, both to the capacity of produce such works and to the activity of generating such products. All who study creativity agrees that for something to be creative, it is not enough for it to be novel: it must have valued, or be appropriate to the cognitive demands of the situation. Creativity is the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.